Jin et al. published the first advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version) (Jin et al. 2020) . The guideline included the guideline methodology, epidemiological characteristics, disease screening, and population prevention, diagnosis, treatment and control (including traditional Chinese Medicine), nosocomial infection prevention and control, and disease nursing of the 2019-nCoV. Moreover, the paper also presented a whole process of a successful treatment case of the severe 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia and experience and lessons of hospital rescue for 2019-nCoV infections.
Traditional Chinese medicine treatment
1. Guiding principles
Treat the patient based on syndrome differentiation individually. Prevention before the illness is better than treatment after getting diseased.
The prevention includes four aspects i.e. community, individual, psychology and drug administration.
3. Herbal Treatment
In general, the treatment covers 2 periods:
- medical observation period
- clinical treatment period
This second period involvs 7 stages, including:
- Early-stage, characterized as exterior syndrome of cold-dampness, treated with Huoxiang Zhengqi Powder (perilla leaf 10 g, atractylodes lancea 15 g, radix angelicae dahuricae 10 g, dried tangerine or orange peel 10 g, notopterygium root 10 g, agastache rugosus 10 g (end addition), mangnolia officinalis 10 g, saposhnikovia divaricata 10 g, poria peel 15 g, and Tetrapanax papyriferus 10 g) . In addition, the recommended Chinese patent medicine is Huoxiang Zhengqi capsules or Huoxiang Zhengqi Shui.
- Early-stage, characterized as cold-dampness obstructing lung, treated with atractylodes lancea 15 g, dried tangerine or orange peel 10 g, mangnolia officinalis 10 g, agastache rugosus 10 g (end addition), amomum tsao-ko 6 g, ephedra herb 6 g, notopterygium root 10 g, ginger 10 g, areca-nut 10 g (end addition), periostracum cicada 10 g, bombyx batryticatus 10 g, and rhizoma curcumae longae 10 g.
- Middle-stage, characterized as epidemic toxin blocking the lung, treated with almond 10 g, gypsum 30 g (predecoction), trichosanthes kirilowii 30 g, rhubarb 6 g (end addition), ephedra with honey fried 6 g, semen lepidii 10 g, peach kernel 10 g, amomum tsao-ko 6 g, areca-nut 10 g, and atractylodes lancea 10 g above yielded decoction. In addition, the recommended Chinese patent medicine is Xiyanping injection or Xuebijing injection.
- Severe stage, characterized as heat toxin generating stasis, treated wtih Three Yellows and Gypsum Decoction, Shang Jiang Powder, and Toxin-Resolving Blood-quickening decoction (ephedra with honey fried 10 g, almond 10 g, gypsum 20-30 g, periostracum cicada 10 g, bombyx batryticatus 10 g, rhizoma curcumae longae 10 g, rhubarb stir-fried with wine 10 g, scutellaria baicalensis 10 g, coptis chinensis 5 g, phillyrin 15 g, angelica sinensis 10 g, peach kernel 10 g, radix paeoniae rubra 15 g, and rhizome of rehmannia 15 g). The recommended Chinese patent medicines is the Xiyanping injection, Xuebijing injection, Qingkailing injection, or Angong Niuhuang pills.
- Severe-stage, characterized as inner blocking causing collapse, treated with ginseng 15 g, aconitine 10 g (predecoction), and Cornus officinalis 15 g, and both taken with fluid Suhexiang pills or Angong Niuhuang pills. The recommended Chinese patent medicines is Xuebijing injection, Shenfu injection, or Shengmai injection.
- Recovery-stage, presents as lung and spleen Qi deficiency, treated with rhizoma pinellinae praeparata 9 g, dried tangerine or orange peel 10 g, Codonopsis pilosula 15 g, radix astragali preparata 30 g, poria cocos 15 g, agastache rugosus 10 g, and fructus amomi 6 g (end addition). In addition, the recommended Chinese patent medicines is pill of costus and amomum with six noble ingredients.
- Recovery-stage, characterized as deficiency of Qi and Yin, treated with Zhuye Shigao Decoction (bamboo leaf 15 g, gypsum 15 g (predecoction), Codonopsis pilosula 15 g, radix ophiopogonis 10 g, pinellia ternate 9 g, cogongrass rhizome 15-30 g, rhizoma phragmitis 20 g, licorice 10 g, and polished round-grained rice 30 g. The recommended Chinese patent medicine: Shengmaiyin.
- Jin, Ying-Hui, Lin Cai, Zhen-Shun Cheng, Hong Cheng, Tong Deng, Yi-Pin Fan, et al. 2020. “A Rapid Advice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-NCoV) Infected Pneumonia (Standard Version).” Military Medical Research, February. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6.